Butyrate Production Restoration Kit
Butyrate Production Restoration Kit
We all love that cup of frozen yoghurt, a spoon of gravy or even the bag of ground nuts. As such as it is sweet, it has millions of beneficial bacteria for the body. Yes, you are reading it correctly, bacteria is beneficial to the body. These normal bacteria that we refer to as normal flora inhabit the linings of the intestines since the acidity in the stomach is very harmful to them and in fact, the total number of bacteria in our bodies overwhelm that of the human cells.
Additionally, we have so much adapted that we need to use butter on bread every so often in the morning. The bacteria participate in formation of components that are called Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). One example of the short chain fatty acids formed by the bacteria is butyrate or sometimes referred to as butyric acid. Butyric acid comes from fiber, butter and animal fat that we consume every so often through the fermentation of the fiber.
To understand how it is formed, we have to look at the digestion fat in the human body until it reaches the intestines.
Digestion in the body
1. Food is ingested in the mouth and mechanically broken down in the mouth by the help of teeth.
2. Salivary glands produce an enzyme called salivary amylase that chemically digests starch in the mouth and is rapidly absorbed into the blood.
3. The tongue mixes the food with saliva to lubricate it and rolls it around into sizable boluses to be swallowed.
4. The swallowed bolus then goes down the esophagus through a process called peristalsis which is basically the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of
muscles to push food down it.
5. Proteins are broken down into amino acids with the aid of gastric juices including the acidic HCl.
6. Fats digestion begins in the stomach by enzymes called lingual and gastric lipases that act on it. The food in the stomach is churned into a very fluid consistency called chime that enters the small intestines.
7. In the small intestines, bile is released and aids in a process of breaking the fats into droplets through a process called emulsification.
8. Pancreatic lipases then break down the fats into fatty acids that are ably absorbed in the small intestines.
9. The chyme is then absorbed of its carbohydrates, proteins and fats and passed into the large intestines.
10. This is where the bacteria in the human body inhabit the most by colonizing the lumen of the stomach. Bacteria help in digestion of resistant starch including fiber products in peas, cereals, nuts and other legumes.
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Formation of butyric acid
The process of its formation is rather complex as much as it is important. It is a fermentation process that is undertook mainly by a bacteria called Clostridium using a biochemical process called glycolysis. The high starch content is oxidized into Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and further into pyruvate. Pyruvate is in turn oxidized into another metabolic product called acetylcoenzyme A(acetylCoA) with the aid of an enzyme called pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase producing two hydrogen ions and a CO2 molecule.
A section of the acetylCoA is converted into acetate whilst producing an energy molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The other part of the acetylCoA is reduced into a product called butyrylCoA as a result of production of two compounds namely, β-oxybutyrylCoA and crotonylCoA. ButyrylCoA is the product that is converted into the much anticipated butyrate. This conversion into butyrate produces a lot of energy which is used in the large intestines to reabsorb hydrogen molecules into the blood stream which in turn causes water to be absorbed in the cells.
What are the major benefits of butyrate?
1. The butyrate synthesis pathway is a slow process and with fiber being much more complex, it causes a slow movement of the products in the colon ensuring maximum absorption.
2. It increases the production of mucus in the colon to prevent friction that might cause injury to the lining of the colon and also prevents harmful bacteria from entering the bloodstream via the colon.
3. It decreases cell permeability to other components such as excess electrolytes in the colon to prevent buildup of unwanted ions which might lead to fluid imbalances. This also ensures that only water that is needed is absorbed and the rest lubricates the feces.
4. It decreases the pH in the colon to create a perfect environment for more bacterial cells to form additional butyrate that is beneficial to the person.
5. It promotes a factor called tight junctions where unwanted materials cannot enter the colon cells and also ensures maximum communication between the cells of the colon.
6. Regulates and inhibits inflammation of the colon by regulation of chemicals that cause inflammation such a cytokine called Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFKB) which regulates production inflammatory chemicals cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins.
7. Regulates and protects against cancer by regulation of p53 transcription factor which causes hyper-methylation in cancer cells and ensures proper supply of enough glucose to facilitate rapid cell division in the cell cycle.